© 2001 Jemsec International. All rights reserved.
This booklet addresses the modern day threats high profile personalities, businesses and executives now face, especially when travelling and working abroad. The following guidelines addresses the most common threats and goes on to provide a solid structure from which the reader can implement counter procedures in order to prevent or reduce the risk of being targeted.
The first line of defence against the common criminal may also stop a terrorist from gaining access to your premises. If criminals or a terrorist group has targeted you, a major part of their decision to do so will have been how easy it would be to carry out their objectives.
Remember! a criminal will first decide if the risk is worth the reward. A terrorist won't care..
Unfortunately, far too many businesses believe the answer lies in recruiting security companies. It is however, a sad fact that many static security companies employ staff that have no security background and receive very little if any training that could in any way reflect the security threats now faced by the business sector.
Terrorists and even the common criminal have moved forward with the advances of new technology, the security industry in the United Kingdom in particular has stood still for over thirty years. Although many such security companies boast about their security training certificates it is in reality little more than a selling point.
If you presently use a static security company you won’t need me to tell you how expensive they can be and in some circumstances more trouble than they are worth. As a result of reading this book you may find after conducting a threat assessment that you don’t need the services of a security company, but instead employ your own personnel to carryout such tasks as checking passes and vehicles in your car park!
Whatever, your decision, by adopting the following basic precautions you can greatly reduce the risk of being targeted by terrorism and common criminals.
In addition to the above you should also consider buying an alarm system that will suit your requirements at a cost you can afford. Remember if you do decide to have an alarm fitted, ensure it also covers your loft space. Again if you are unsure contact your local crime prevention officer for advice.
You should consider having your windows specially treated by applying a thin polyester film to the inside of the glass. This has the effect of holding the glass together in case of an explosion. Another option is to replace existing glazing with laminated glass at least 7.5mm thick.
Polyester film alone does not, however, provide sufficient protection when close to a large bomb device. Special net curtains should be fitted to contain the flying glass and drop it to the floor.
For further advice on glass, film and curtains contact your local crime prevention department.
The most effective access control is an efficient reception area, through which all visitors must pass, after their authenticity is established and which other routes can not by pass. Remember if a terrorist wants to plant a device or take hostages and hold them within a building they must first gain access.
The following procedures will greatly reduce unauthorised entry into large premises.
Stop and Search
This is particularly relevant to premises, which are open to members of the public such as shops department stores and places of entertainment etc, but is also appropriate to other business premises.
Periodically, and specifically at times when the terrorist threat is high, you should consider searching all handbags and luggage brought into your premises. This is more than a defensive measure; the deterrent value is enormous. Only the most determined of terrorists will attempt to penetrate such a security screen.
People who operate very small businesses, such as small shops, newsagents or tobacconists where there is only one room with one entrance, searching hand luggage at the door may prove impracticable. Nevertheless, you can still be vigilant and ensure that any article brought into the shop is taken out again
Any personnel tasked to carryout searches should be properly trained to search systematically and recognise items, which may contain a bomb.
Your powers of stop and search (U.K.)
Good housekeeping practice
Good housekeeping both inside and outside of your premises will greatly reduce the opportunity for an explosive device to be planted undetected.
Remember! If you can’t detect it, they’ll keep planting it?
Removing litter-bins can reduce the threat from terrorist bombs in public areas. However, if rubbish is allowed to accumulate against walls, in flowerbeds etc, explosive devices can easily be concealed amongst the rubbish. Consequently, if litter-bins are to be removed, the effected area should be swept regularly.
This option may prove costly; therefore, unless a site is considered particularly vulnerable unsealed litter-bins should be allowed to remain in situ.
However, thought should be given to there positioning and kept away from exits and secondary hazards such as glass. The agency or department responsible for emptying litter-bins should do so at least twice daily and to an unpredictable routine. Staff responsible for emptying litter-bins should receive appropriate training on the careful removal of litter-bin contents.
There are on the market a number of litter-bins capable of withstanding some of the effects of a small explosive charge, however they are not bombproof. Contact your local crime prevention department for further advice.
Staff can do much to protect their business and the local community from the threat of terrorism by keeping a sharp look out for suspicious or unusual behaviour. Such behaviour may include, for example, loitering, attempting to avoid CCTV cameras and frequent visits to a particular store without making any purchases.
It is good practice to:
In addition to the above clothing stores in particular should carryout a quick search for devices prior to closing. This will greatly reduce the threat and the success of an incendiary device being planted or igniting during the silent hours.
Remember! If they can’t put it down, it won’t go bang?
If I was to ask the majority of businesses who they believe is responsible for their disaster co-ordination, they will probably say the police or their fire warden. If you also believe this, then the following chapters should serve as a wake up call?
The role of the disaster co-ordinator
A single person within your organisation should be selected as the disaster co-ordinator. Depending on the type and size of your organisation this could be the proprietor, the chief security officer or someone in senior management. It will also be necessary to appoint a deputy co-ordinator that will assume responsibility in the co-ordinators absence.
The disaster co-ordinator should have both the responsibility and authority for implementing your disaster plans and procedures. It may also be useful if the co-ordinator establishes contact with his opposite number in other similar premises in the area. Self-help groups could then be formed to share information and experience to the benefit of all.
Finally the co-ordinator should establish a relationship with the police crime prevention department, who will provide advice and assistance as required. Plans should be cleared with the relevant emergency services to ensure they are correct and workable.
Co-ordinators main responsibilities
Responding to incidents
Every organisation should have plans and procedures for responding to bomb incidents or a gas explosion. The details will depend upon individual circumstances but there are some general principles, which apply to all.
Various groups choose terrorism to promote their political causes that often involve shocking acts of violence. The terrorist may choose specific targets; for example, persons or organisations associated with their political opponents. However, increasingly in recent years terrorists around the world have shown themselves willing to carry out indiscriminate attacks, which place members of the public directly at risk.
Because different terrorist groups choose different targets and employ different methods, it is not possible to provide a generally applicable guide to assessing the threat from terrorist attack.
Before doing anything else you should, however, reach a judgement about the nature of the threat to your own organisation in light of its particular circumstances. This assessment will help you decide on the kind of precautionary measures, which you should introduce to protect your organisation and draw up contingency plans which suit your requirements.
It is possible to reach a perfectly valid assessment by applying common-sense principles in the light of general knowledge gleaned from day to day reporting of world and home affairs in the media.
You should already have some idea whether your organisation is likely to be regarded as a specific target by a particular terrorist group. However you may be an indirect target without even knowing it. Consider your location, are you situated close to premises, which might specifically be targeted by terrorists or an individual?
Consider the record of accomplishment of active terrorist groups as reported in the media. Has premises similar to yours been targeted in the past. Is there anything about your organisation, which might attract a terrorist seeking to achieve publicity from an act of violence?
Remember your clients may put you at risk simply because you are conducting business with them?
Make an analysis of the vulnerability of your organisation. If a terrorist group or individual should decide to target your premises, what methods might they use and how easy would it be to do so. Keep your threat assessment in mind when you draw up plans and procedures for responding to incidents.
The object of this chapter is to describe the main types of bombs, which are used by terrorist groups and individuals targeting your organisation. This chapter also refers to methods of protecting against them, and describes what to do if an object is found in circumstances which, lead to the suspicion that it might be a bomb.
We can provide an idea of the typical appearance of each type of bomb, however, it is important to be aware that bombs can easily be disguised to look like everyday objects. It might not always be possible to recognise a bomb from its outward appearance. What is important is the ability to recognise the kind of suspicious object, which might be a bomb.
Remember a suspicious object is an item, which might contain a bomb, which is out of place and cannot be accounted for. Any suspicious package should be treated with extreme caution and the police notified immediately.
The high explosive device
A high explosive device typically consists of the following components:
Commercial or military explosive is a dense putty-like material that may be in blocks, lumps, sticks or sheets. It maybe in its original wrappers, wrapped in cellophane or concealed in a container. In some devices the explosive maybe home-made and will be in the form of a powder or granules. This is as dangerous as military or commercial explosives.
This is a copper or silver tube with coloured wires attached and imparts the shock, which is required to detonate the explosive. It will normally be inserted into the mass of the explosive. In the case of home-made explosives, the detonator is taped to an intermediary, resembling coloured washing line, which then runs into the explosive.
This may either be a mechanical clockwork timer or an electronic timer, mounted on a printed circuit board. Often the timer will be housed in a small plywood box; one or a number of L.e.d’s may also be visible. The timer acts as a switch to close the firing circuit at a pre-determined time, which may be a number of hours, days or a matter of seconds.
This will normally be a battery or group of batteries and is often housed in the same plywood box as the timer. The electric current is required to power an electric timer (if present) and to fire the detonator.
Wires of various colours are used to link the various components, junctions being covered with coloured plastic adhesive tape.
This can take any form and will be used to transport and disguise the components mentioned above.
When high explosive detonates the effects can include:
How to protect against high explosive devices:
The incendiary device
If an incendiary device ignites:
To protect against incendiary devices:
The postal bomb
To protect against postal bombs:
All staff required to open mail during the course of a day. Should be warned that if they suspect a package they should:
Know the tell tale signs:
Contact your local police crime prevention officer who should be able to advise you of the various types of equipment available and how to obtain it
The vehicle bomb
It is well known that in recent years some terrorist and subversive groups have parked vehicles containing large bombs within high-populated urban areas.
Terrorists have also attached explosive devices to the underside of vehicles with the intention of killing or seriously maiming the occupants when the vehicle is moved.
Any vehicle is capable of carrying a large explosive device without showing any easily recognisable signs. As it may not be possible to recognise a vehicle bomb for what it is, defensive measures are particularly important and should be introduced when the level of threat justifies a general increase in security measures.
To protect against vehicle bombs:
Dealing with telephone warnings
Terrorists and subversive groups frequently (but not always) give telephone warnings of bomb explosions. So unfortunately do hoaxers whose threats are empty. In such cases you will have to decide how you are going to respond. In particular you will have to decide whether to evacuate your premises.
In all cases you should:
Very often terrorist organisations issue telephone warnings to organisations, which would not, themselves, be effected by the explosion they are warning about. In these circumstances, your response is just as important as the safety of others may depend on how quickly you can warn them about it.
Responding to telephone warnings often involves making difficult decisions. What is often overlooked is how important, and how difficult, it is to gain the maximum amount of useful information from the call.
Who needs to know?
Switchboard operators most frequently have to deal with telephone warnings but any member of staff who has a direct line might also receive a threatening call.
On receiving a bomb threat, you now have the unenviable task of locating the device. This may not seem such a big task to a small business that works from one or two small offices, but to a medium or large sized business the co-ordination required to successfully complete a thorough search might prove overwhelming.
Most businesses in the United Kingdom still believe that it is not their responsibility to search their premises. However, the following information on police policy may well change this view.
It is helpful for you to understand police policy on search and evacuation (UK) and the police role in dealing with bomb threats. Normally the police will not themselves search a building following receipt of a bomb threat. This is for two very good reasons:
The police will only search your premises in the event that they receive specific information regarding the whereabouts of the device.
The following information provides a sound structure from which to build your search procedures.
It is vital to have search plans prepared in advance, and staff trained in them. The objective is to make sure that the whole building is checked as quickly and effectively as possible.
The following rules apply:
The first step in preparing a search plan is to divide the building into sectors.
Your building may already be segregated into departments and therefore, it maybe convenient for you to make these you’re sectors, each sector must be of manageable size for one or two searchers.
Remember! that effective and systematic searching takes time
Depending on room sizes, the sector may be one large room such as a factory floor, shop, department, or perhaps a number of small offices in an office suite. It is most important that cloakrooms, stairs, corridors and lifts are included in your plans.
Do not forget to include car parks and other areas outside the building including evacuation form up points
Initiating a search
It is important a search is carried out as soon as possible. Therefore, the co-ordinator must ensure procedures are in place for notifying his search teams.
The co-ordinator can initiate a search by:
Remember it is likely that the co-ordinator will order an evacuation. Therefore, it is important to ensure that evacuation routes and form up points have been searched to ensure the safety of personnel when moving through them.
Further areas include:
What to look for
It is difficult to give guidance to search teams about the appearance of bombs as they can be disguised in many ways. However, the following should be used as a rule of thumb.
The search teams are looking for an unidentified object:
How to search
Although the way in which the teams conduct their searches will depend, to some extent, upon local circumstances and their local knowledge, they should conduct it in a logical and thorough manner so that no part of their sector is left unchecked. With this in mind, you may consider adopting the method outlined in this typical example of a room search in a sector.
The search is carried out in three phases which we will call sweeps.
Use of radios
Until a suspect device has been found the use of hand held communications is often the only way of assuring appropriate and speedy lifesaving procedures for search and evacuation. However, once a suspect device has been located, those using hand held communications should immediately move away and ensure that they and anyone else in the area move outside the cordon as quickly as possible.
If a suspect object is found
Follow the golden rules:
The above plans and procedures provide an easy and systematic procedure for your search teams to use. However, your particular circumstances or building may require certain changes to be made. If this is the case be sure you don’t over complicate the procedures, as this will almost certainly increase the possibility of search teams making mistakes. It is also extremely important to ensure that search teams are well practised and confident.
Many people believe evacuation is a simple task of getting everyone out of a building and requires very little planning. Sadly this attitude has without doubt contributed to the loss of life. The following plans and procedures provide a solid framework from which to formulate your evacuation plan.
If a suspect vehicle or object is found near your premises, or if you should receive a telephone warning, it will be necessary to decide whether to evacuate the premises. The purpose of evacuation is to move people from an area where they might be at risk to a place of safety.
This maybe achieved by:
In all cases where a bomb threat has been received the co-ordinator should immediately inform the police and advise them of what actions are being taken.
Making the decision to evacuate
The decision to evacuate must normally be taken by the co-ordinator but the police will be ready to advise on request. In exceptional circumstances, where for example police have received specific information, they may themselves order an evacuation, if necessary overruling the decision of the co-ordinator.
However, on the other hand, it maybe necessary for the police in some circumstances to insist that the premises be not evacuated. They might for example, have reason to believe there is an explosive device outside the building and evacuation may put lives at greater risk.
There are four options open to the co-ordinator, which one is chosen depend upon their assessment of the threat, which the situation presents. The options are:
This option may appear attractive if the threat appears to come from a drunk or a child. It should not be adopted unless the co-ordinator is sure that it is a malicious call or prank. If there is the slightest doubt, the co-ordinator must turn to one of the other options
Search and then evacuate if necessary
This choice means, of course, that people will be in the building for a longer period if there is a bomb present. However, if a bomb is found, they can then be evacuated away from the danger. If nothing is found and there are no other significant factors, the co-ordinator may then decide to declare the building safe. The co-ordinator may consider this option appropriate if assessing the threat level as low
Search and partial evacuation
When the threat level is considered to be moderate, but there is no reason to believe an explosion is imminent
If a suspect device is small such as a letter bomb and parts of the premises maybe some considerable distance away from the device, the co-ordinator might consider evacuating part of the premises alone, or retaining only essential staff and search teams on the premises
If a call is received which the co-ordinator considers to indicate the existence of a high risk, there will be a case for evacuating as quickly as possible without conducting a search, especially where there is the possibility of an imminent explosion. When the time of an explosion has been disclosed in a threat call, the co-ordinator must ensure that any searches are finished and staff cleared at least thirty minutes before the deadline, irrespective of whether any device has been found or not
As in the case of search plans the co-ordinator should have up to date drawings of evacuation routes. This is especially necessary when there are a number of exits from the building.
The purpose of evacuation drawings is twofold:
Their use can aid the efficient and quick evacuation of a building by using all available exits. A public address system can help in raising the alarm and directing staff to particular exits when no other form of communications is available. The fire alarm can be used to raise the alarm, providing it can be sounded in a way that distinguishes it from a fire warning and staff has been trained to recognise the signal, and the fire alarm is not part of an automatic system connected to the fire brigade.
The use of a fire alarm is a poor alternative to a public address system and should only be employed temporarily pending the installation of something better.
To provide alternative routes for evacuation so that people can leave the building without being placed in danger by passing close to the suspect device.
For example, if you have four evacuation routes but one of the routes runs close to a suspect device, the co-ordinator can immediately instruct evacuation via the other three routes only.
Considerations when drawing up evacuation plans
Making the decision to re-occupy the building
Once an evacuation has been completed the co-ordinator will at some stage have to decide when the building can be re-occupied. Where a suspect device has been found the police (if not already present) will attend immediately and assume control until the object is declared safe. Thereafter, control will revert back to the co-ordinator.
The co-ordinator should remember that there maybe another suspicious object somewhere in the building, undiscovered because the initial search was terminated and the building evacuated due to the discovery of the first suspect object. Therefore, the co-ordinator should, have the rest of the building searched before considering the building safe for re-occupation.
However, where police have ordered the initial evacuation, they will remain in control and declare the building safe for re-occupation.
Internal bomb shelter areas
In some offices and buildings it may sometimes be safer to evacuate to a pre-selected area within the building rather than onto the street. This option may prove particularly useful in preventing the need to pass through an area close to a suspect device or in circumstances where the location of the suspect device is not known. However, it may not be appropriate as a means of evacuating members of the public from shops or other public areas, for example, where members might exceed the capacity of the available accommodation.
Selection of internal bomb shelter areas
You should always seek the advice of a qualified structural engineer with experience in the effects of explosions as to whether the building contains an area which is suitable for use as a bomb shelter area. And if so, that it can safely accommodate the total number of people who might be evacuated to it. The institution of Civil Engineers and the Institute of Structural Engineers hold a list of qualified advisors.
Selection of internal bomb shelter areas
For ‘modern-framed’ structures and for ’heavy masonry framed’ structures predominantly constructed at the turn of the century, the following points may aid in identifying suitable bomb shelter areas:
It is good practice to locate evacuation packs close to the exit routes, to be collected by nominated personnel if an evacuation is ordered. The packs should contain items, which will assist with the administration of the evacuation, and items, which might ease the hardship of a long wait in the assembly area.
Some suggested items for inclusion are as follows:
The final stage in responding to a terrorist incident is getting back to normal – the recovery phase. In the interests of your business or your public you should develop and test, recovery plans in case they are needed.
Managing the recovery
In the aftermath of a terrorist incident there will be confusion and disorder. The management structures in your organisation, which have been developed to deal effectively with its normal business, may not provide the best control structures for taking charge of an abnormal situation and restoring a measure of normality in the crucial hours and days following an incident.
Access to your premises
You should be aware that the police would set up cordons at the scene of any major incident to control the movement of people and vehicles. Staff will not be permitted to enter any cordoned area if it is believed to contain a suspect device.
Nor will the police allow access to a cordoned area around the scene of an explosion. This is for safety reasons and allows the police to search the area and to gather evidence, which might be found at some distance away from the explosion.
While the police, in conjunction with the local authority, will strive to restore normality as quickly as possible, it is likely to be some time before staff will be permitted to visit premises within a cordon and then, perhaps only in limited numbers. At that point and for sometime thereafter, police will ask for official proof of identity before permitting entry.
You should therefore consider making company identity cards available to your staff. While a cordon is in place glaziers, building contractors and other workpeople will only be allowed entry on production of written authority from businesses employing their services.
Business letter headings should therefore be held away from the normal business premises. While the cordon is in place, the police will ensure the security of the premises within it. Once it is lifted, the responsibility reverts to the occupiers.
To avoid looting, businesses must be ready to re-occupy and secure premises
immediately once the cordon is removed.
Duplication of facilities
It is a wise precaution against many types of incidents, which might disrupt the normal operation of your business, to prepare alternative facilities to fall back upon in an emergency. This will normally mean arranging to use alternative premises for carrying on the business’s core function.
This may be achieved internally, where your business occupies a number of premises in different areas (at least half a mile apart), or by mutual agreement with another business. Such facilities could also function as an alternative evacuation assembly area.
Dealing with the media
Most of us are fortunate to live in a democracy with a free press, but it is important not to play into the hands of the terrorist by allowing sensational and or inaccurate stories to flourish in the aftermath of an incident. Therefore:
These recommendations are not designed to constrict the media, but to help ensure accuracy.
The only effective defence against abduction is to prevent it happening in the first place. The level of preventative measures you put in place should equal the threat against you or your organisation and should include the risks you’re family face due to the type of work you carry out or because you are wealthy.
As in any area of security you need to identify what, where, who, and why you are at risk before you can draw up a security plan to thwart it.
What - is the threat?
Where - will it be carried out?
Who - will target you?
Why - are they doing it?
There are two types of abduction:
It is generally accepted, a group of people or a terrorist organisation would not specifically wait for an opportunity to present itself for the purpose of gaining financial blackmail or political demands.
It would be fair to say unless you or your family is extremely wealthy, a high profile or work in a high-risk country you are unlikely to be targeted in this way. However, it is true to say that we all face the possibility of a snap abduction as the only determining factors of being selected is being in the wrong place at the wrong time.
Prevent the snap
The following principles will greatly reduce the risk of becoming a victim of a snap abduction.
The above statement should also be applied if you’re jogging, riding a bike or riding a horse. Use past incidents as a guide to what type of incidents occurs, and where they happen.
Adult considerations for themselves
Returning Home from Pubs & Clubs:
Is your route the safest or just the most convenient.
Find out where the no go areas are for tourists.
Remember there is only canvas between you and them. Be selective of the type and the location you choose.
Carefully select the car park you regularly use, select a space close to a light and or close to shops or car park attendants. Before opening you door look through the window to check if no one is hiding behind the front seats. Once inside your car lock the door immediately. If possible ask a car park attendant to escort you to your car if it is parked in a dark area or if it is late at night.
Considerations for the safety of children
Parks & Playgrounds:
A great number of children have been abducted from local parks and playgrounds often only a few hundred metres away for their homes. A neighbourhood playground watch can easily be developed for the safety of all, contact your local police crime prevention officer for assistance.
Holiday Parks & Campsites:
Remember all faces are strange faces therefore, it is impossible to identify a person as being out of place. For this reason you should not, sadly allow your children to wander anywhere without your supervision. You should also on arrival make a threat assessment of the areas where your children will be most at risk, this should include areas where they shouldn’t be.
Children’s Route’s too & from School
Walk the route your child takes to school. This should include the morning and afternoon as the traffic both in vehicles and on foot will alter. Do not allow your child to cut through parks, wastelands, woods or back alleys.
Places in your Area Where Children are attracted
Railway lines, conker trees, school playing fields, brooks, disused quarries, abandoned buildings, building sites, local hills.
Remember a person wanting to abduct a child will want it to be in a secluded location away from prying eyes therefore he/she will select one or a number of the above first.
The above list is by no means complete you should find out the attractions in your local area your child may choose.
Prevent the planned abduction
The following principles will greatly reduce the risk of becoming a victim of a planned abduction.
Know your environment:
Your conduct after capture
It will be plain to see what kind of abduction has been carried out from the outset. Your actions and behaviour will play a big part on the treatment you will receive at the time of the abduction, immediately after and in the long term.
Time of abduction
Immediately after the abduction
It is very important from the very outset to maintain your personal hygiene and personal fitness. Any opportunity for escape will be trashed if you are physically unfit to carry it out. Your quality of life after release could also be significantly effected.
Terrorist attacks can be directed against a country, organisation or an individual. The lives that are lost and the horrific injuries, which are sustained, are results of those acts.
This chapter will not stop the intent of a terrorist to cause an explosion or shoot their victims. It will however, provide you with the knowledge that will help drastically reduce the chance of becoming an easy victim of a terrorist attack.
History of terrorist activity
The following list of attacks is by no means complete, and there are many hundreds more that go unlisted simply because of a very grey line between political violence and terrorism. The difference being nearly indistinguishable at times.
For instance, what was the motive of the assassin who took a shot at the pope? Was it anti-Catholicism, anti-Rome/anti-Italy or just a nut case trying to get his moment of dubious ‘fame’?
This list is only an example and does not include terrorist attacks carried out by the IRA
From 1968 to 1995 there was 134 listed terrorist attacks, resulting in 1,973 deaths and 1,653 injured.
It stands to reason if a country is being targeted by a terrorist organisation, all the interests of that country, be it government, business, or its citizens will be fair game for the terrorist.
The following considerations should therefore be made:
It can be said there are no go areas in every city in every country in the world. This could be a result of your religion, nationality or colour. The reason doesn’t really matter your actions should be the same.
It is fair to say that if a country is politically unstable it becomes a breeding ground for terrorism. Every time a new terrorist organisation forms they take terrorism a stage further in the scale and type of targets they choose.
Terrorism is an expensive business, a great deal of organisations turns to kidnapping and blackmail to fund their activities and have been known to include bank robberies. Therefore, the above may be relevant to you if you are wealthy, or work as a prominent member of a large organisation.
Actions on a terrorist attack
The only thing about a terrorist attack that can be said to be the same every time is the speed for which it is carried out.
Types of Attacks:
The Body Count
The only reason for this type of attack is to kill as many people as possible.
Typical examples would be a large vehicle bomb positioned in a heavily populated area, a suicide bomb driven into a building and a bomb planted on a plane such as the one that crashed at Lockerbie with the loss of 140 lives.
The Publicity Stunt
The publicity gained from taking hostages is immense, especially if it is an aeroplane.
The drama surrounding the will they won’t they discussions on the television regarding some idiot asking another idiot ‘when do you think the authorities should storm the plane’ and ‘how do you think the hostages are feeling at this point’ do not help families of the hostages one bit.
It does not matter if the terrorist loses the fire fight in the plane or not the terrorists will still achieve their objective of bringing their cause to the worlds attention through the media.
Actions on a terrorist attack
On hearing gunfire you should:
Your actions on being stormed
Inevitably, a siege must come to an end; there are three ways this will happen.
On being stormed
When the assault teams storm a building there will be confusion, noise, smoke and gunfire. You will be disorientated, scared and have an overwhelming desire to run towards the assault team members, this action puts you in the assault teams line of sight and the terrorists line of fire.
The following actions should be taken when the assault team breaks in:
Giving leadership to fellow hostages
Negotiating better treatment
If you are considered a high-risk terrorist target or travel to a high-risk country your business and private agenda will be high on the list of priority information the terrorist will want to obtain. Your agenda puts you in a specific place at a specific time. From your agenda the terrorist/abductor can plan in great detail how he is going to carryout his tasks with relative ease.
You should therefore keep your agenda secret and only tell the people who are directly involved the details as and when they need to be told. Also express to those you tell the need for their discretion.
When arranging your business meetings outside of your office and you are considered to be a high risk, you should ensure appropriate security measures have been put in place both for your journey too, from and at the venue. The terrorist relies heavily on information concerning their targets. By starving them of all easy information, will force them to take greater risks to achieve their aim, it is at this stage many attempts are thwarted.
The following considerations should be made:
You should also have an emergency route, which you can take if you become suspicious of a vehicle on your planned route. Your emergency route should not be used for any other purpose other than described above. If the terrorist knows you have an emergency route he will simply include it in his planning which then renders the route useless.
You are now entering what is effectively, a minefield? You may even wonder why this section has been included in this book? If this book is to provide a complete security structure, first aid has to be included and is to a certain degree relevant to any security crisis.
First aid procedures can change weekly! What is the right action today maybe considered wrong tomorrow. For this reason I will only include combat medical first aid techniques that should only be used in circumstances such as disasters which effectively swamp the emergency services, or when you are in a position of being denied any medical aid, due to being kidnapped or taken hostage.
In many circumstances especially on becoming a hostage you may receive injuries either inadvertently, or as a result of repeated beatings. Your chances of survival may lie in your own ability to self-treat your injuries, and those of fellow hostages.
You can increase your chances of survival in a hostage situation if you become an asset to the hostage takers. Knowing first aid along with providing leadership to fellow hostages will certainly help put you in this bracket.
Commercial first aid packages are available. The Ambulance service should be your first choice if their courses are available in your area. If not look around! Do not just settle for "St John’s".
It is important to realise that there is only a certain amount you can do as a first aider to help injured people. After all you’re not a doctor, surgeon or a medic.
Aims of first aid
The principles of first aid are the general rules or guidelines, which should always be adhered to by the first aider if the aims are to be effective.
Priorities of treatment
Some injuries are more serious than others are and in general they should always be treated in the following order.
E.g. Unconsciousness, choking, chest wounds
E.g. Open wounds
Common sense must be used when deciding the priorities of treatment and it must be remembered that the above priorities are only a guide. E.g. a burn of 20% is much more serious than a broken finger and should be treated first.
Principles of casualty rescue
Often at the scene of an incident, people rushing in without thinking make the situation worse and this can lead to the unnecessary suffering of casualties and more importantly injury to the first aider. To ensure the efficiency of a first aider at the scene of an incident the following principles should always be carried out.
Priorities of evacuation
Once the casualties have been treated they are given a priority of evacuation. This ensures that those casualties requiring the earliest treatment, receive it, and those with minor injuries are left to the end. Organising priorities of evacuation is particularly important when evacuation transport is limited and only a percentage of the casualties can be evacuated at the same time. I.e. natural or man made disasters
Casualties needing URGENT resuscitation and/or surgery.
Casualties needing EARLY surgery and POSSIBLE resuscitation
All other casualties
There are three types of bleeding:
Blood spurts out of the wound in time with the heartbeat and is bright red in colour
Blood wells out from the wound in an even flow and is dark red in colour
Blood oozes from the wound. This type of bleeding often stops without treatment
A pressure point is a place where an artery crosses over a bone close to the surface of the skin. The two most commonly used pressure points are:
Application of pressure
This is very dangerous as it can easily go unnoticed. There are several main causes:
Signs and symptoms
Bleeding within the chest
If the bleeding is within the chest there may be additionally:
The definition of unconsciousness is an interruption in the normal activity of the brain
(Note: casualty may only be turned if injuries permit)
15 minute observations
Once the casualty’s condition has been stabilised and the airway is secured, certain observations must be carried out so that a record of the cause of the unconsciousness and condition of the casualty may be passed on to Medical personnel at a later stage in the evacuation.
Levels of response
This helps to assess how deep the unconsciousness is. It could be anything from a simple faint that lasts only a few minutes, to a coma that can last for years.
Assessing the levels of response
To be carried out in four stages:
The definition of a fracture is a chip, crack or brake in the continuity of a bone.
Types of fracture
Severity of the burns depend on:
Area of burn
The larger the area of burn, the greater the loss of bodily fluid
All burns of 18% or more require a transfusion. To estimate the area of loss, use the WALLACE rule of nines.
Burns are classified into two types
These are less painful because the nerve endings have been damaged or destroyed. They appear to be dull, white or brown in colour and charring may also be present.
These are the most painful types of burns, when only the outer layer of skin is affected. They appear red and maybe blistered. They are more painful because the nerve endings have been unaffected. With correct treatment the skin will regenerate naturally without the need for skin grafts.
Please remember that the purpose of this booklet is to highlight the basic security guidelines that we believe your company should already have in place.
This book will aid you in formulating your security objectives and provide you with enough information to assess your companies weaknesses, shortfalls and additional requirements.